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Substrates like maize stalks, sorghum stalks, vetiver grass and straw were also found to be suitable for growing Calocybe indica. The crowded gills are white but gradually develop into brown with age, and the cylindrical stem is 10 centimetres (4 in) high with no ring nor volva. The highest protein content (23.66%) was observed on wheat straw, while the minimum (19.33%) on rice straw substrate. As summarised in Tables 1 and 2, three different substrates were tested for the highest yield and nutritional components of milky mushroom. Effect of different temperatures and pH on radial growth of different strains of. Bekerly, Toronto, Canada: Ten Speed Press. The findings of the present investigation are comparable to previous studies reported by different authors like Sharma et al. The results suggest that wheat straw substrate is the best substrate for the fastest colonisation of milky mushroom. Production of grain mother and planting spawns of, , C. S. (2018). Always be sure to correctly identify your mushrooms before consuming! Mushrooms grow from dust-like particles called spores, which develop into a mass of dense white tangled threads called mycelium. Kadiri, M. (1999). The stipe of Tricholoma is sub globose, short, 3.9- 4.2 cm with small hair … Proximate composition and mineral content of selected edible mushroom varieties of Bangladesh. In contrast to the present findings, rice straw is also reported to be a good substrate for milky mushroom cultivation (Biswas and Singh, 2009; Pani, 2010). Calocybe carnea [ Basidiomycetes > Agaricales > Lyophyllaceae > Calocybe . The maximum fresh weight of fruiting body was obtained from peat moss casing bags followed by loam soil casing bags, while the lowest weight of fruiting body was obtained from spent mushroom substrate casing. Milky Mushrooms are also known as summer mushrooms. (1993). Moisture percentage, protein contents, nitrogen and potassium were analysed according to the method of AOAC (1990). With the increase in temperature during incubation from 25 to 35°C, mycelial growth of milky mushroom was highly influenced. The mycelial growth (cm) of Calocybe indica on different media at different temperature levels. The lignocellulosic waste materials after cropping, showed an increase in N content of substrates, among three substrates cotton waste showed the highest N values than other growing media. These findings are regarding biological efficiency and total yield on wheat straw are in accordance with the results of previous studies (Doshi et al., 1993, 2007). The pileus diameter and stem length significantly varied from each other on different substrates, while the stem diameter of mushroom was found non-significant (Table 1). Alam, N., Amin, R., Khair, A., and Lee, T. S. (2010). Miles, P. G., and Chang, S. T. (2004). To learn more about the use of cookies, please read our. Rathore, Sharma, Prasad, and Sharma (2018) found that Glu content of Calocybe indica fruit bodies was positively correlated with selenium concentration cultivated on Se-enriched wheat straw. The ash content was estimated from the sample incinerated at 600 ± 15°C (Raghuramulu et al. It has no reported antimicrobial activity. Bioscience Biotechnolog y Research Communications, 11(4), 307–314. Pharmacognostical studies Macroscopical analysis The morphological characters of the fruiting body such as colour, surface texture, taste and odour were examined15,16. Cultivation of milky white mushroom in Bihar, India. It can be grown on substrates containing lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses. The highest biological efficiency was obtained with wheat bran supplement followed by rice bran supplement. Prononciation de Calocybe indica à 1 prononciation audio, et de plus pour Calocybe indica. Evaluation of alternative substrates for milky mushroom. The maximum mycelial growth of C. indica (8.63 cm) was measured at pH 7, while the pH 8 level of agar media showed minimum mycelial growth (6.76 cm). Doshi, A., Sharma, S. S., and Trivedi, A. (Agriculture). 3 Biotech, 2, 249–257. These results are in agreement with those of Shukla and Jaitly (2013) and Singh et al. Vertical bars represent mean ± SE (n = 3). Calocybe. Mushroom cultivation using the ZERI principle: Potential for application. The substrates were soaked in water for 24 h and then spread on the floor to constitute the level of moisture at 65% (determined by using hot air oven). Production flush of Agaricus blazei on Brazilian casing layers. However, the interaction effect of media and temperature on mycelial growth was non-significant. The mycelium took 18–20 days to completely cover the grains. 1–33). The pH of the media was set at different pH levels (6, 7 and 8) after sterilisation of media in autoclave (Automatic Drying Autoclave ATV1100) at 121°C. Hyderabad, India: National Institute of Nutrition, ICMR. The total yield of C. indica differed significantly on different casing materials. Each of the supplements (4% dry weight) was mixed separately with substrate (wheat straw) before spawning. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. Effects of various easily available supplementation materials (i.e. The present findings are in agreement with the findings of Ayyub et al. Share on facebook. Calocybe gambosa (autrefois Tricholoma georgii), en français le tricholome de la Saint-Georges ou le mousseron parmi de nombreux autres noms vernaculaires, est une espèce de champignons basidiomycètes comestibles de la famille des Lyophyllaceae.Très fréquent en Europe, il pousse au printemps, en même temps que les morilles et dans le même habitat (fagetum), chaque année au … Basidiocarp (cm/day) of the Four Varieties of M ushroom for . There are not many species of this genus in Britain.The name is derived from the Ancient Greek terms kalos "pretty", and cubos "head". New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc. , F. (1961). (2003). Values are expressed as means ± standard error. (2015) who obtained the maximum mycelial growth of milky mushroom at 30°C. Evaluation of alternative substrates for milky mushroom. Mushrooms are appreciated in most of the countries due to their delicacy, flavour, taste and texture and are considered as an ideal health food (Stamets, 2011). The effects of two different culture medium (PDA and MEA) on mycelial growth of C. indica at different temperature levels were recorded after 10 days of inoculation (Figure 1). A manual of laboratory techniques (pp. (2004). It is becoming more popular, due to its robust size, attractive colour, sustainable yield, delicious taste, and unique texture (Amin et al., 2010). Effect of straw substrates and casing materials on yield of milky mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C.) Feasibility of dairy waste water (DWW) and distillery spent wash (DSW) effluents in increasing the yield potential of, , A. The agronomic traits studied such as total yield, number of fruiting bodies, the maximum diameter of pileus and stalk length, biological efficiency, protein contents, phosphorous and potassium contents were observed on wheat straw substrate. Mushroom Biology and Biotechnology, 213, 293. Similarly, the MEA medium was prepared by mixing 20 g agar, 20 g dextrose and 20 g malt extract in 1 L distilled water. The In this study, mycelial running was significantly earliest in wheat straw substrate (23 days) followed by rice straw (28.33 days), whereas significantly maximum time was required in cotton waste (34 days). The flesh has a mild flavour that has been described as oily, and a faint smell reminiscent of radishes it tastes like an unripened coconut that which we can eat it without any cooking. Taxonomy. (2014) reported that wheat straw is the best substrate for the fastest mycelium colonisation as compared to other substrates. Calocybe indica. Pharmacognostical studies Macroscopical analysis The morphological characters of the fruiting body such as colour, surface texture, taste and odour were examined15,16. It is necessary to find the appropriate culture media, temperature, pH and substrate for higher yield and nutrition of cultivated mushroom. The analysis was performed as described for the mushroom fruiting bodies analysis (AOAC, 1990). Pantnagar: GBPUA&T, 94. , K. (2014). [1], C. indica grows in grasslands, fields and road verges in Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan, generally on substrate rich in organic material. It can be grown on straw of … Effect of temperature on mycelial growth of different strains of Calocybe indica mushroom. Calocybe indica is a tropical edible mushroom of Indian origin and can be cultivated indoor in high temperature and humidity areas (Purkayastha & Chandra, 1974). Increasing the period of treatment and observation. cm. Thakur, M. P., and Singh, H. K. (2014). In addition, the effect of wheat bran supplement has also been reported in tropical and sub-tropical oyster mushrooms by Gurjar and Doshi (1995). Oyster and button mushrooms, which require low temperature (18–20°C) for its growth and production, can only be cultivated during winter months or under controlled conditions (Chang, 2008). Sing. Effect of temperature on mycelial growth of different strains of, , P. (2015). Indian Phytopath, 65, 399–403. The mycelial growth (cm) of Calocybe indica on PDA at different pH levels. New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Chapman, D. H., and Parker, F. (1961). Data collected were analysed using the Statistix 8.1 software. planned and conducted the experiment and wrote the manuscript, M.A.A helps in reviewing the manuscript, A.N. Wheat straw was used as a substrate in this experiment on the basis of the evaluation of the substrates during Experiment No. Kumar, R., Singh, G., Mishra, P., and Singh, R. (2012). . A. sustainable yield, delicious taste, and unique texture. (2011). Proximate composition and mineral content of selected edible mushroom varieties of Bangladesh. Selection of different substrates for the cultivation of milky mushroom (, , R. S. (2006). Thesis. Calocybe indica, a tropical edible mushroom, belongs to the family Tricholomataceae of the order Agaricales (Pu rkayastha and Chandra, 1976). Contents of vitamins, mineral elements, and some phenolic compounds in cultivated mushrooms. Gothwal, R., Gupta, A., Kumar, A., Sharma, S., and Alappat, B. J. After cropping C. indica the spent mushroom substrates gave an increase in potassium contents (Table 4). The phosphorous content in raw substrates was maximum in cotton waste and after cropping, phosphorous content remained highest in cotton waste while, found lowest in rice straw. The biological efficiency (%) was significantly influenced by the substrates as shown in Table 2. 3Influence of various casing materials on the yield and biological efficiency of milky mushroom, Experiment No. Small genus of about 40 species of mushroom, including St. George's mushroom, which is edible, and milky mushroom, which is edible and is cultivated in India. Mycobiology, 38(3), 184–188. All the casing materials were subjected to therm treatment at 65°C for 4 h. After therm treatment of casing materials, they were spread on the bags upon completion of mycelium running. A comprehensive review of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C). International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 65(2), 285–293. (pp. 1, 62, pp. Calocybe indica was formally described in 1974, from material collected in Calcutta. Use of vermiproducts in the cultivation of milky mushroom (. Chang, S. T. (2007). Selection of different substrates for the cultivation of milky mushroom (Calocybe indica P & C). Traditionally eaten in West Bengal, it is being grown commercially in several Indian states and other tropical countries. Mycelial growth was adversely affected either with an increase or decrease in pH levels. Scientia Horticulturae, 225, 327–334. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Welcome to the Shroomery Message Board! 512–558). The results are nearly comparable with the results of Arshukla (2004) who stated that pH 7 of agar media showed the highest mycelial growth of milky mushroom, while Subbiah and Balan (2015) found optimal mycelial growth of mushroom within the range of 5.5 and 8.5. Royse, D. J., Rhodes, T. W., Ohga, S., and Sanchez, J. E. (2004). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49(5), 2343–2348. Abstract: Milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) has become the third commercially grown mushroom in India after button and oyster mushrooms. A 2.5 cm thick layer of casing material was applied uniformly on the substrate. Evaluation of various casing materials for enhancing growth and yield of button mushroom (. All Posts » Prev Previous Using Mycorrhizae in Your Garden – with instructional video. (2003). Using tea waste as a new casing material in mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (L.) Sing.) Yield, mushroom size and time to production of. JNKVV Research Journal, 48 (2), 120–135. , I. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 42(2), 616–623. The maximum fresh weight of fruiting body (37 g) was recorded in wheat straw, while the minimum weight of fruiting body (28 g) was noted from cotton waste substrate. (2018) uses various casing materials for the growth of milky mushroom and found that casing materials positively affected the growth and yield of mushroom. Effect of substrates on biochemical attributes such as N, P, K, Ash, moisture, protein of Calocybe indica mushroom fruiting bodies. 2003). Humidity was maintained with the help of humidifier (SINBO Hislon SAH-6107). The authors are grateful to Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan for financial support to this study under SRGP#1071. Mushrooms: Sources for modern western medicine. 5. 2Evaluation of various substrates for the cultivation of milky mushroom, Experiment No. , S. I. Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition, 22–23, 61–68. The pileus (cap) diameter of fruiting body was found to be significantly higher on wheat bran supplemented substrate as compared to non-supplemented substrate. Pinterest . Doshi, A., and Sharma, M. (2007). The highest number of fruiting bodies per bag was harvested from peat moss casing followed by loam soil, while the lowest number of fruiting bodies was obtained from spent mushroom casing material. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science, 7(2), 317–322. There was a significant difference in the growth of mycelia of milky mushroom as shown in Figure 2. Experimental conditions and substrate preparation methods were the same as in Experiment No. (2014). Impact of different substrates for spawn production and production of milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) AMIT KUMAR MAURYA, VINNY JOHN, RAKHI MURMU AND SOBITA SIMON Milky mushroom ( Br. Effects of different culture media, temperature and pH levels on the growth of wild and exotic, , S. M. (2017). The mouths of bags were closed with rubber loose band and opened after the completion of mycelium running. Species of edible mushroom native to India. Traditionally eaten in West Bengal, it is being grown commercially in several Indian states and other tropical countries. After solidification of media in petri dish, mushroom culture was inoculated at the centre of the petri dish with 5 mm disc of actively growing mycelium under aseptic conditions with three replications. They are also less demanding and offer a high yield. Comparative study on growth parameters and yield potential of five strains of milky mushroom (. Varshney (2007) and Subbiah and Balan (2015) reported 25–35°C temperature is ideal for the highest growth of mycelium of the milky mushroom. Mycelial growth (cm) was also recorded after 9 days of inoculation (Hoa et al., 2015). Milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) can be grown on wide range of substrates as in case of oyster mushroom. World Journal of Fungal and Plant Biology, 3(1), 1–12. This mushroom is gaining , white sporocarps long shelf life and taste (Chadha and Sharma, 1995) [1]. The second experiment was conducted to assess the best growing substrate for nutritional and agronomic characteristics of milky mushroom. Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 115–124, eISSN 2083-5965, Mushroom strain and substrates collection, Experiment No. In the first experiment, the mycelial growth of mushroom was recorded at different temperatures, agar media and pH levels. It is a fantastic variety that grows in states like Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andra Pradesh, and Odisha. (2014). (2010) who found that wheat bran supplement added with substrate increased the growth, yield and biological efficiency of milky mushroom. These mushrooms look attractive with bright white color and have a good shelf life as well. , T. S. (2010). Calocybe indica slices (5 mm) were dried in cross flow dryer, open sun dryer, solar dryer, through flow dryer, vibro dryer, vacuum dryer in the respective drying chambers at 65, 36, 55, 60, 55 and 45°C. (1995). This mushroom is gaining popularity due to its attractive robust, white sporocarps, long shelf life, sustainable yield, delicious taste, unique texture and cholesterol free foods with certain important medicinal properties including their antiviral effect. Doctoral dissertation. PDA media was used in this experiment with pH levels of 6, 7 and 8. (2009). Pardo, A., González, J. E. P., Pardo, J., and DE Juan, A. J. Soc. After the completion of mycelium growth in the bags with fungus, 2.5 cm thick layer of casing material was applied uniformly on the substrate. The N, P, K content significantly varied in fruiting bodies of mushrooms grown on different substrates (Table 3). Calocybe indica is rich in protein, lipids, fiber, carbohydrates and vitamins and contains an abundant amount of essential Spawn of milky mushroom was prepared according to the method described by Sardar et al. Overview of mushroom cultivation and utilization as functional foods. The time required to complete mycelium running in days differs significantly (p < 0.05) among substrates. Production technology of Calocybe indica has been introduced by Purkayastha and Nayak in 1979 which was improved by Purkayastha and Nayak in 1981. The It has no reported antimicrobial activity. (2013) and Zahid et al. Botanical Name: Calocybe indica. The authors—botanists R.P. | Milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) is an indigenous tropical edible … Calocybe indica is an indigenous mushroom and only variety which can grow at temperate conditions (28–32 °C) (Pandey and Tewari 1993). Calocybe indica is rich in cabohydrates, protein, lipids, fats, fiber, ash and is abundant with essential amino acids. Spawn was prepared for the cultivation of milky mushroom. These mushrooms look attractive with bright white color and have a good shelf life as well. International Journal of Knowledge Transfer, 13, 434–436. Moreover, Kerketta et al. Yamauchi et al . M. Sc. Dharwad, India: UAS. Calocybe indica Fluorescence analysis were studied. The equally maximum fresh weight of mushroom fruiting body was obtained with wheat bran and rice bran supplement. Furthermore, fresh air in the growing room was circulated with an exhaust fan (size 12 inch) to lower the CO2 below 1,000 ppm after every 3–4 h. The mushroom fruiting bodies were harvested after 25 days (on fruiting body maturity), and observations on growth parameters were recorded. Toss with olive oil, and season to taste. OF CALOCYBE INDICA (P&C) Darwin Christdhas Henry L.*, Sowmiya A., Sutha Raja Kumar R., Thamarai Selvi M. and Jaiganesh V. Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai nagar – 608002, Cuddalore dt, Tamil Nadu, India. Different substrates had a significant influence on number of fruiting bodies (Table 1). However, the lowest efficiency was noted in non-supplemented substrate (Table 7). Substrates filled bags were inoculation with 5% spawn and then incubated at 30°C for mycelium growth in the mushroom growth room. Contents of vitamins, mineral elements, and some phenolic compounds in cultivated mushrooms. Milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) fits well under these conditions because of its ability to grow at temperature above 30°C, white sporophore, excellent shelf life, high biological efficiency (80-90%) and easier in post-harvest handling 9. Orlando, FL, USA: Academic Press. They stated that a high amount of lignin, hemi-cellulose, pectin in the wheat straw substrate accelerate the high rate of mycelium of milky mushroom. Dhakad, P. K., Chandra, R., Yadav, M. K., and Patar, U. R. (2015). 319–320). Hoa, H. T., Wang, C. L. and Wang, C. H. (2015). Key words: Aphelenchoides swarupi, Aphelenchus avenae, Agaricus bisporus, A. bitorquis, Calocybe indica. A significant variation was observed in wheat bran and rice bran supplementation to wheat straw substrate on growth and yield of milky mushroom (Tables 6 and 7). In commercial cultivation of milky mushroom, casing is an important agronomic practice on which fruit bodies appear. The maximum total yield was obtained with wheat bran supplement as compared to non-supplemented substrate. (2017) with little modifications. Find more similar flip PDFs like Commercial production of Milky Mushroom ( Calocybe indica. H.S. Biswas, S., and Singh, N. P. (2009). ). Share on pinterest . The moisture content of mushroom fruiting bodies was noted in the range of 83–85%. M. Sc. Technique for commercial production of milky mushroom Calocybe indica P&C. Milky mushroom is one of the best edible mushrooms which is grown at high temperature during summer months (Vijaykumar et al., 2014). The results obtained in this study relate to the findings of Krishnamoorthy et al. (2018) studied the effects of four substrates on the umami … delicious taste, and unique texture. The crude protein content of mushroom fruiting body varied significantly among substrates. Comment dire Calocybe indica Anglais? (2013). 2. In the fourth experiment, supplements were used in substrates for enhancing the growth and yield of milky mushroom. Dharwad, India: UAS. The fruiting bodies harvested from wheat straw gave the maximum amount of ash contents (10%) while the rice straw substrate gave the least amount. Patel, Y., Naraian, R., and Singh, V. K. (2012). The use of Calocybe indica (Milky mushroom) as the medium of mycoremediation effectively lessen the count of bacterial colonies in Marikina River’s water by creating a bio-antagonistic relationship with the bio-pollutants present on the water samples. (Calocybe indica) attained the lowest mean lengt h with 4.90 . , S. T. (2007). Technique for commercial production of milky mushroom, , R. (2012). Effect of supplements with wheat straw substrates on growth attributes of Calocybe indica mushroom fruiting bodies. Casing soil protects the compost against desiccation, supports the mushroom against pests and diseases, provides support for developing sporophores and provides a gaseous exchange for growth and development of mushrooms (Colauto et al., 2011). Online International Journal of Biosolution, 3(1), 121–123. , H. J. by Michael Kuo. The average relative humidity was maintained at above 85% and the temperature range was set between 30 and 35°C. Next Fruiting Mushrooms In , T. S. (2010). Calocybe indica, commonly known as the milky white mushroom, is a species of edible mushroom native to India. 2 with the same experimental conditions. , V. (2001). Mushrooms: Sources for modern western medicine. Effect of substrates on growth attributes such as total yield (g), biological efficiency (%) of Calocybe indica. In S. T. Changand W. A. Hayes (Eds), The biology and cultivation of edible mushrooms (Vol. Calocybe indica is more popular due to its robust size, attractive color, sustainable yield, delicious taste and unique texture. Milky mushrooms, botanically classified as Calocybe indica, are the only mushroom species both native to and cultivated in the hot, humid climate of India. Pantnagar: GBPUA&T, 94. Variability among the strains of. Chang, S. T. (2008). Influence of different supplements on the commercial cultivation of milky white mushroom. As it grows in hot humid climate hence this mushroom is highly suitable for cultivation in most of the plains of India almost throughout the year. and S. N. helped in designing and statistical analysis and S.E and S.A. helped in analysis. Days required to complete mycelial running in substrates filled bags were minimum on wheat bran supplement while, in control highest days required to colonise substrate (Table 6). Substrates exposed to rain or harvested premature (green color) are prone to various weed moulds which may result in failure of the crop. , R. H. JR. (2005). Cultivation of milky white mushroom in Bihar, India. All the experiments were conducted in a completely randomised design with three replications of each treatment. Share on linkedin. Amin, R., Khair, A., Aiam, N., and Lee, T. S. (2010). (2004). (2009). Peat moss, loam soil and spent mushroom substrate were used as casing materials. The sturdy all-white mushrooms appear in summer after rainfall in fields and on road verges. (2010) with little alterations. The casing layer has microorganisms and provides an environmental change that helps mushrooms to shift from a vegetative stage to a reproductive stage (Gülser and Pekşen, 2003). Mushroom Mountain. This mushroom is gaining popularity due to its attractive robust, whitesporocarps, long shelf life, sustainable yield, delicious taste, unique texture and cholesterol free foods with certain important medicinal properties including their antiviral effect. (2011). The results also indicated that the addition of supplements with the substrate improved yield and yield contributing characteristics. Kurtzman, R. H. JR. (2005). Shade drying and powdering of fruiting body … [1] Botanist A. S. Krishnamoorthy found it growing in Tamil Nadu in the mid 1990s, and its commercial production was overhauled and improved. Mushroom cultivation using the ZERI principle: Potential for application. Effect of substrates and supplements on fruit bodies production of, , C. H. (2015). Regarding total yield obtained after harvesting of all mushrooms from bags, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) among different substrates.

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